Programa de submarinos da Índia
June 24, 2019 - Face ao envelhecimento da sua frota de submarinos, a Marinha indiana está a construir quatro submarinos nucleares com mísseis balísticos (SSBN) e seis da classe Scorpène (SSK) com propulsão diesel e elétrica.
The Indian Navy (IN) commissioned four Shishumar Class SSKs and eight of the nine active Sindhughosh (Kilo) Class submarines between 1986 and 1994. The boats have received mid-life upgrades, but if the standard 30-year limit is respected, the subs will have to leave service by 2024.
Since the launch of its Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project in the 1990s, India has achieved its long-held goal to establish a nuclear deterrent across the land, air and sea -- the so-called “nuclear triad.”
“In an era such as this, a credible nuclear deterrent is the need of the hour,’ said Prime Minister Narendra Modi in November 2018, as he announced that India’s first SSBN, INS Arihant, had completed its first deterrent patrol armed with nuclear missiles.
The second Arihant-class SSBN, INS Arighat, launched in 2017, is currently undergoing sea trials.
In October 2005, India signed a contract for Project 75(I). Six Scorpène-class diesel-electric attack submarines (SSKs) were to be built by Mumbai-based Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) and partner, France’s Naval Group.
Construction of Boat 1 (Kalvari) began in May 2009, fabricated from 16 subsections. The hull fabrication of all six P75(I) submarines is now complete and four boats, INS Kalvari, Khanderi, Karanj and Vela, have been launched, the latter in May 2019. The IN commissioned Kalvari in December 2017.
The P75(I) project has not been without problems. In June, Jane’s Defence Weekly reported that the IN has refused to commission INS Khanderi until MDL and France’s Naval Group fix a total of 36 defects and deficiencies -- including “unacceptably high” engine and propeller noise levels.
Earlier, in August 2016, the leak of some 22,000 pages outlining classified capabilities of the Scorpènes roiled the government in New Delhi. Revelations included stealth details, noise levels, cavitation data and sonar frequencies and ranges.
Project 75(I) is currently estimated to cost between INR400 billion and INR450 billion -- US$5.75 billion and $6.47 billion.
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