Über 70 Coronavirus Impfstoffe in Entwicklung
April 15, 2020 -
Mehr als 70 Coronavirus Impfstoffe sind global in Entwicklung -- drei Pharmaunternehmen haben bereits das Versuchsstadium erreicht und ein vierter Vakzinekandidat steht kurz vor der ersten Phase klinischer Erprobung.
Of the three vaccine studies already in human trials, the first uses an adenovirus as a vector to deliver the SARS-CoV-19 spike protein as an antigen to trigger antibody and cellular immune responses. The developers are CanSino Biological Inc. and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology.
A second adenovirus approach is about to enter clinical trials in the United Kingdom. Professor Sarah Gilbert’s team at Oxford University’s Jenner Institute have made a vaccine based on the Chimp adenovirus, ChAdOx1. This vaccine also uses the spike protein gene from the coronavirus.
Boston-based Moderna, Inc., in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), has developed a messenger RNA (mRNA) lipid-nanoparticle–based vaccine. Clinical trials for the vaccine candidate are taking place in Seattle, Washington. The sequence for the vaccine candidate, called mRNA-1273, also contains genetic code for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
One study by U.S. company Inovio Pharmaceuticals has Federal Drug Administration approval for its DNA vaccine INO-4800 with first Phase I trials starting on April 6.
The DNA vaccine uses plasmids -- small circles of double-stranded DNA -- genetically engineered to carry the spike protein gene. Inovio’s candidate vaccine is delivered using electroporation (EP) – which uses a small electrical current to make the human cells more permeable. EP treatment can boost antigen delivery by nearly 1000-fold.
The World Health Organization has identified another 67 preclinical vaccine candidates.
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