خمسون عاماً على حرب تشرين (أكتوبر) infographic
Graphic shows timeline of the war.
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سياسة

خمسون عاماً على حرب تشرين (أكتوبر)

By Phil Bainbridge

October 6, 2023 - October 25, 2023 - الحرب التي شنتها مصر وسوريا على الإسرائيليين لتحرير الأراضي المحتلة في العام 1973 أوصلت العالم إلى حافة حرب نووية وأثارت أزمة نفط كبرى ومهدت الطريق لمحادثات سلام عربية - إسرائيلية.

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt blamed Egypt’s dire social and political problems on the defeat to Israelis in the 1967 Six-Day War and is believed to have sought a limited war to jumpstart the peace process and return the Sinai to Egyptian control. Syria’s President Hafez al-Assad, had rebuilt the military with Soviet support and wished more than anything to avenge the humiliation of the 1967 loss.

That they were both initially successful, inflicting heavy territorial and personnel losses on the Israeli army lay in no small part on Israeli intelligence underestimating the danger posed by its enemies.

Fearing that military supplies wouldn’t last a prolonged war, the Israelis turned to the United States, who for their own part were keen not to allow the Soviet Union to obtain the upper hand in the Middle East. The U.S. duly obliged, airlifting arms and equipment and allowing Israelis to turn the tide.

The Arab-dominated OPEC announced an oil embargo unless the Israelis returned to pre-1967 boundaries, triggering a global economic crisis that lasted for much of the 1970s.

As Israeli forces advanced towards Cairo and Damascus, the Soviet Union threatened to send troops to defend their allies, but with the U.S. putting its nuclear forces on high alert, backed down.

Sources
PUBLISHED: 05/10/2023; STORY: Graphic News; PICTURES: Getty Images, Newscom
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